Within the common inhabitants, about 15% of ladies will expertise melancholy after the start of a kid. Given the downstream results of postpartum melancholy (PPD) on the kid’s well being and well-being, it’s important that we have the ability to establish girls at excessive threat for experiencing PPD. The identification of threat components earlier than supply — and even earlier than being pregnant — would permit us to observe excessive threat girls extra carefully and may afford the chance to provoke preventative interventions which mitigate threat for sickness.
A scientific evaluation and meta-analysis from Zacher Kjeldsen and colleagues examined the affiliation between household historical past of psychiatric sickness and threat for postpartum melancholy. Of their ultimate evaluation, a complete of 26 research have been included, containing info on 100,877 girls. The meta-analysis confirmed a twofold elevated odds ratio (OR) of growing PPD when moms had a household historical past of psychiatric sickness (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.67-2.59).
The meta-analysis from the present examine signifies an nearly twofold enhance in threat of PPD in moms with a household historical past of psychiatric issues in contrast with moms with out household historical past. In different phrases, girls with a household historical past of psychiatric sickness may have a 30% threat of experiencing PPD. Whereas it is a helpful piece of data, that is most probably not a shock to most. We all know that having a household historical past of psychiatric sickness will increase one’s threat for melancholy, and having a historical past of melancholy will increase threat for PPD. (Nonetheless, some research haven’t proven an affiliation between household historical past of psychiatric sickness and PPD.)
The present examine didn’t take a look at particular psychiatric issues. In one other examine analyzing information from the Danish medical register, researchers noticed that if a lady had a first-degree relative (mom, father, brother, sister, or baby) with a historical past of any psychiatric dysfunction, her threat of getting an episode of postpartum psychiatric sickness was about 1.5-fold increased than in girls with no household historical past. Nonetheless, if the lady had a first-degree relative with a historical past of bipolar dysfunction, her threat of getting an episode of postpartum psychiatric sickness elevated almost threefold. (In distinction to the examine from Zacher Kjeldsen and colleagues, the Danish examine checked out threat solely in girls with no private historical past of psychiatric sickness previous to being pregnant.)
Each research remind us to ask about household historical past on each side of the household. Whereas having a mom or sister who has skilled postpartum psychiatric sickness might enhance a lady’s threat of PPD, having a brother or father with any kind of psychiatric sickness additionally confers important threat.
What we don’t but know is how numerous threat components — resembling depressive signs throughout being pregnant or discontinuation of medicines — work together with one another, nor do we all know how protecting components (e.g., social helps) might modulate threat. Our final aim could be to generate some type of PPD threat calculator in order that we may consider every lady and provides a extra personalised estimate of threat for perinatal psychiatric sickness and to pick out applicable preventative interventions. That is possibly the place huge information can assist us.
Ruta Nonacs, MD PhD
Zacher Kjeldsen MM, Bricca A, Liu X, Frokjaer VG, Madsen KB, Munk-Olsen T. Household Historical past of Psychiatric Problems as a Danger Issue for Maternal Postpartum Melancholy: A Systematic Assessment and Meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2022 Aug 17.